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United States 
Department of 

An Agreemei 
States of Amer 
the cultural, te 
regarded as a i 
the peoples of 1 
tries, was spec 
The United Stat 
six technical st 
ics; Agricultur 
culture; and Cc 
additional stud 




National Agricultural Library 

ments of the United 
les for exchanges in 
This Agreement is 
lerstanding between 

es of the two coun- 
ange of specialists. 
Soviet Union in 1958 
;ricultural Econom- 
ihanization of Agri- 
nned to send three 
ing, and Millwork; 

Sheep Raising; and Biological Control of Agricultural Pests. 

The Soviet Union in turn sent to the United States in 1958 six delegations of specialists 
in the following subjects: Farm Mechanization; Hydro-Engineering (Irrigation) and Rec- 
lamation; Animal Husbandry; Cotton Growing; Agricultural Construction and Electrifica- 
tion; and Veterinary Science. In 1959 three additional Soviet teams are expected in the fol- 
lowing fields: Mixed Feeds; Forestry, Lumbering, and Millwork; and Horticulture. 

Each United States exchange study group, on completion of its assignment, prepared a 
report for publication. This report of the exchange delegation of agricultural engineers 
was prepared by: K. D. Butler, AVCO Corp., Ithaca, N. Y.; A. W. Cooper, Director, 
National Tillage Machinery Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, Auburn, Ala.; 
C. W. Hall, Michigan State University, East Lansing; W. H. Worthington, John Deere 
Tractor Research and Engineering Center, Waterloo. Iowa; L. W. Hurlbut, University of 
Nebraska, Lincoln; and W. M. Carleton, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, Md. 

Gustave Burmeister 
Assistant Administrator 
Agricultural Trade Policy and Analysis 
Foreign Agricultural Service 





Council of Ministers 5 



Repair Technical Stations 6 

Machine Test Stations 7 


Organization of Collective Farms 8 

Organization of State Farms 9 

Equipment on Collective and State Farms 10 




Educational Facilities 13 

Educational Pattern 16 

Agricultural Engineering 16 

Institute Student 17 

Faculty 18 

Laboratory Facilities 18 

Books 19 

Correspondence Courses 19 

Foreign Languages 19 

Library 20 

Publications 20 

University Training 20 

Conclusions 20 



Tractor Production 24 

Tractor Design 25 

A Combine Plant 25 


Housing 27 

Dairy Structures 28 

Silos 28 

Miscellaneous 30 

<T> ^ A 




Farm Equipment Statistics, U.S.S.R 31 

Technical Description of Some Tractors Manufactured in the U.S.S.R 31 

Immediate Farm Mechanization Goals in the U.S.S.R 32 

Some Farm Equipment Developments of Interest 32 

Conference with U. A. Frantsesson 33 

Washington, D. C. Issued November 1959 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 25 cents 


Report of a Technical Study Group 

The farm mechanization technical study group 
from the United States arrived in Moscow on Au- 
gust 20, 1958, for a stay of 30 days. We were met 
at the airport by five representatives of the Min- 
istry of Agriculture. The interpreter from the 
Ministry was thoroughly conversant with farm 
machinery terminology. 

On the day following our arrival we met with 
the Russian representatives in the Ministry of 
Agriculture to discuss the program and itinerary. 
We made suggestions of places we would like to 
visit and, in retrospect, it appears that we were 
permitted to visit most of the places we re- 

The Soviet Union consists of 15 Republics includ- 
ing Russia, the largest Republic. It occupies one- 
sixth of the land surface of the world and has a 
population of 200 million people. At present the 

U.S.S.R. has about 10 percent more tillable acres 
than the U.S.A. Although Russia is not overpopu- 
lated (30.2 people per square mile), it needs addi- 
tional food supply. Most of the U.S.S.R. is north of 
the U.S.A., and much of the land is not now used 
productively for farming. About 56 percent of the 
people live on farms, but mechanization of 
agriculture, planned by GOSPLAN, the overall state 
planning commission for the U.S.S.R., and financed 
from the government treasury, is resulting in rapid 
reduction in farm population. 

Machinery from the U.S.A. has been used as a 
pattern for Russian machinery for many years. 
This is evident from the designs of older machines, 
in particular, and a few of the new machines. Per- 
sonnel at research and teaching institutes for agri- 
cultural engineering are working closely with de- 
signers, testers, manufacturers, and users to 

Figure 1.— Route of the U.S.A. Farm Mechanization Team in the 
U.S.S.R. — Moscow, Minsk, Kiev, Zaporozhe, Kharkov, Rostov-on -Don, 
Krasnodar, Barnaul, Shipunovo, Moscow. (BN-8897) 


improve old models and develop new models of 
tractors and other machinery. Government fi- 
nancing and the administrative structure connect 
all agencies. The system is difficult to under- 
stand at first glance, but it incorporates competi- 
tion between various agencies; for example, it does 
not make the testing agency responsible to the 

The machinery manufactured in the U.S.S.R. is 
on display at the All-Union Agricultural and Indus- 
trial Exhibition, which occupies an impressive 
500-acre area in Moscow. This very interesting 
and well -planned exhibition contains examples of 
practically all the machines, tractors, industrial 
equipment, farm crops, and types of livestock in 
the U.S.S.R. Among the exhibitors are collective 
and state farms, republics, territories, regions, 
and scientific groups. 

One of the displays was a large moldboard plow, 
which can plow 1 meter deep. The Russians plan 
to plow to a depth of 1-1/2 meters to improve soil 
conditions on many limestone soils in Crimea. 

A number of trailing and mounted moldboard 
plows, ranging up to the 6-bottom mounted plow (3- 
point hitch) designed for their crawler tractor, 
were on display. The depth of plowing is generally 
22 to 25 centimeters for grain crops and 30 to 35 
centimeters for sugar beets. Some bottoms were 
35 centimeters wide and could plow to a maximum 
depth of 25 centimeters. 

Also displayed was the equipment used in the 
Maltsev system of cultivation, a large-size artist's 
impression of the equipment, and a description of 
the system, which was developed for the Trans - 
Ural section of the U.S.S.R. 1 It was described as 
loosening the soil to a depth of 40 to 50 centime- 
ters with a "moldboardless" plow once in 4 years, 
and cultivating with a "baby duckfoot" sweep plow 
and a spike -tooth harrow every year. 

In addition to machines presently manufactured, 
many experimental and prototype machines were 

displayed. An example was a tractor equipped with 
springs and shock absorbers on the front axle to 
permit it to travel at high speeds. It was also 
equipped so that the rear wheels could be shifted 
in and out hydraulically while the tractor is moving. 

Last year 8 million people attended the exhibi- 
tion. In addition to chairmen of collective farms, 
directors of State farms, and other representatives 
of agriculture and industry were visitors from 
many countries but particularly those bordering 
the Soviet Union. It is worth the time of any visitor 
to the Soviet Union to spend 1 or more days at this 

Figure 2.— The U.S.A. farm mechanization team 
outside the home of T. I. Tretyakov, Director of 
the Milk State Farm, near Barnaul in Siberia, 
Sept. 12, 1958. Left to Right: K. D. Butler, W. H. 
Worthington, A. W. Cooper, Director Tretyakov, 
W. M. Carleton, C. W. Hall, and L. W. Hurlbut. 



Organization and management in the U.S.S.R. and 
in the U.S. A., whether in an educational institution, 
in industry, or elsewhere, are quite different. 

Everything in the U.S.S.R. operates in conformity 
to an overall state plan. There are plans for vir- 
tually everything; and the production and distribu- 
tion of farm equipment, with a supporting educational 
system for the training of personnel to mechanize 
agriculture, are no exceptions. 

1 1. V. Tyurin. Original article appeared in Pock- 
vovedenia 8: 1-11. 1957. Translation in Soils and 
F ertilizers, vol. 20, no. 6, 1957; published by Com- 
monwealth Bureau of Soil Science, Farnham 
Royal, Bucks, England. 

The organizational setup is illustrated in charts 
1 and 2. 

The top academic leaders are assembled at the 
University of Moscow and in the U.S.S.R. National 
Academy of Science. These are parallel to each 
other and responsible to the Presidium. 

The Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences in 
Moscow is the principal agricultural academic 
center and is not under the Ministry. 

Under the Ministry are the Timiryazev Agri- 
cultural Academy, an important agricultural train- 
ing center, and the Bauman Higher Technical 
School, the top agricultural teaching institute in 
the U.S.S.R. Both are in Moscow. 



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THE U. S. S. R. 

























Also under the Ministry is the All-Union Academy 
of Agricultural Sciences, under which are 35 All- 
Union Agricultural Institutes. Examples: 

(1) All-Union Farm Mechanization and Electrifi- 
cation Institute in Moscow, and 6 other similar in- 

(2) All-Union Institute for Farm Mechanization 
and Electrification, Rostov-on-Don. 

(3) All-Union Cotton Institute, Tashkent. 

(4) All-Union Drainage and Amelioration Insti- 
tute, Minsk. 

(5) All-Union Forestry Institute, Stalingrad. 

(6) All-Union Irrigation Institute, Tashkent. 

(7) All-Union Tobacco Institute. 

(8) All-Union Rice Institute, Krasnodar. 

(9) All-Union Corn Institute. 

(10) All-Union Plant Breeding Institute (national 
seed bank, over 21,000 varieties). 

(11) Kuban Research Institute for Tractor and 
Farm Machine Testing, Krasnodar. 

Council of Ministers 

The Council of Ministers, which operates di- 
rectly under supervision of the Presidium, has 25 
members; 7 of the 25 are All-Union. Ministries of 
top priority, such as heavy industry, are the most 
tightly centralized and controlled. Lines of con- 
trol run directly to the top. 

Each ministry has a so-called collegium of high 
officials who are advisory but who cannot interfere 
with the ministry's absolute power of decision 
within the overall plan. 

In addition, most ministries have advisory coun- 
cils, made up of 40 to 70 members. The Ministry 
of Agriculture has a Scientific Advisory Council of 
approximately 60 members chosen from high offi- 
cials in the Ministry, directors of tractor and farm 
implement factories, outstanding engineers, and 
other technically knowledgeable people in agri- 

Apparently all major questions of planning, re- 
search, and production are brought before the 
Council of the Ministry, which meets periodically 
for study and recommendations. 

Recommendations of the Council are made to the 
Ministry, which carries its recommendations to 
GOSPLAN, from which recommendations in turn 
go to the Presidium and elsewhere, as outlined in 
the charts. 

Each ministry is divided into various sections, 
such as Finance, Planning, Research, and Pro- 

The Soviet administrative organization has con- 
trols, and although there is undoubtedly private 
expression of suggestions or discontent, public 
expression is apparently unthinkable without prior 
clearance with Party authorities. 

In many matters, the Soviet administrative setup 
turns for significant controls to other places such 
as: (1) Communist Party, (2) Secret Police, (3) State 

Planning Commission, (4) Ministry of Finance, 
(5) Ministry of State, (6) Legal controls, and 
(7) Personnel controls. 

Although central control is very strict, many 
people in the outlying Republics, who are responsi- 
ble to the Ministry of Agriculture, are on the pay- 
roll of the Republic or are paid by some local body. 

We asked the question, "What is the budget of 
the Ministry of Agriculture?" One of the key offi- 
cials of the Ministry frankly said, "I have no idea." 
Further, when we asked about how many people 
are employed by the Ministry of Agriculture, the 
reply was, "About 1,000." 

Each Republic has a Scientific Council, and each 
Republic finances most of its own research. The 
All-Union Research Institutes are exceptions to 
the "decentralized" plan for research support. 
The details for planning and financing research 
were not clearly spelled out. 

In our first conferencewith the Ministry (Aug. 22), 
we were told that several organizations were in- 
terested in agricultural research— The Bureau of 
Construction (Tractors and Machines); the Bureau 
of Economics; Council for National Economy (new 
products and their processing); Agricultural Acad- 
emy of Science; and the Ministry of Agriculture. 
The Ministry of Agriculture is primarily concerned 
with the application of research findings in agri- 
cultural production operations. 

At a later conference, the construction bureaus 
were described as "being responsible" to the 
Councils of National Economy. There are local 
councils in the different government republics — 
there may be several councils in one republic. 
For example, the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist 
Republic has more than 50 councils. Some small 
republics have only one Council of National Econ- 
omy. The construction bureaus may be organized 
either separate from factories or within factories. 
Those in the factories are said to operate quite 
independently. Any construction bureau can coop- 
erate with one or more factories. 

There seems to be an interlocking check-and- 
balance on administration of programs. For ex- 
ample, the director of a Machine Testing Station 
outside Kiev said that he reports to the U.S.S.R. 
Ministry of Agriculture but works with the Ukraine 
Ministry of Agriculture. 

The director of the Ukraine Institute of Farm 
Mechanization and Electrification said he is re- 
sponsible to the Ukraine Academy of Agricultural 
Science and the Academy is responsible to the 
Ministry of Agriculture of the Ukraine, which in 
turn is responsible to the Ministry of Agriculture 
of the U.S.S.R.; yet the basic design work for this 
institute is done at the Bureau of Construction in 
Moscow, which is directly under GOSPLAN. 


The State Planning Commission (known as GOS- 
PLAN) is the overall planning body for the U.S.S.R. 


Before 1948 and since 1951, it has held the overall 
responsibility for preparing and checking the 
progress of national planning. 

GOSP LAN pervades the entire government struc- 
ture, and each Union Republic has its own GOS- 
PLAN organization. It is significant that there are 
planning committees in all regions, districts, and 
important towns and cities, as well as planning 
groups in every ministry and in all agencies and 
business enterprises responsible to it. 


As mechanization of agriculture increased in 
importance in Soviet planning, it was necessary to 
devise a way to apply this technology. Who would 
own the equipment? Who would operate it? How 
would it be maintained and kept in repair ? 

Since no land was privately owned and it was im- 
possible for individual farmers to own and main- 
tain tractors and other equipment, a system within 
the framework of a universally socialized agricul- 
ture had to be devised. Farms were being col- 
lectivized throughout the U.S.S.R. 

So, in 1928, the first so-called Machine Tractor 
Station was set up. The MTS owned the equipment 
in the name of the state; and each strategically 
located station allocated the equipment to the var- 
ious collective farms in its immediate vicinity. 

Repair facilities were installed. A program to 
train maintenance personnel was established at 
institutes set up for this specific purpose. The 
idea and organization spread, until by 1957 more 
than 8,000 Machine Tractor Stations were in op- 

The system multiplied many problems. Manage- 
ment of the collective farms was separate from 
the centrally -owned tractors and equipment. We 
were told, however, that the equipment was usually 
field -ope rated by residents and employees of the 
farms. There was contradiction on this point. 

The MTS built up great power, kept detailed 
records, and virtually spelled life or death to a 
farm enterprise because the farm was subservient 
to the allocation of equipment. 

The MTS not only furnished the equipment, but 
was responsible for technical personnel, major 
repairs, supply of lubricants and fuel, and super- 
vision of work accomplished with equipment. By 
1957, we were told, these stations employed more 
than 2 million tractor drivers, mechanics, and other 
semitechnical people. By 1957, it was estimated 
that more than 277,000 specialists in all phases of 
agriculture, including tractor and equipment oper- 
ators, were functioning. 

By officials' own admissions, the divided respon- 
sibility between the MTS's and the managers of 
collective farms often caused delays, duplication, 
misunderstanding, and general inefficiency. 

GOSPLAN is divided into about 25 sections, one 
of which controls all planning and execution of 
plans pertaining to automobiles, tractors, and 
farm equipment. G. S. Khlamov, chief of this 
GOSPLAN section, headed the U.S.S.R. Farm 
Mechanization Exchange Group that visited the 
U.S.A. in the summer of 1958. Some 20 years ago, 
he worked about 1-1/2 years for a motor company 
in the United States. He understands English well 
and speaks it fairly well. 


In 1958, following a lengthy speech by Khrushchev, 
it was decreed that the MTS's would be replaced 
by Repair Technical Stations. Ownership of trac- 
tors and equipment was to be taken over by the 
farms, and necessary services would be handled 
by the RTS's. 

We were told that impartial committees were 
set up to appraise the equipment and to help deter- 
mine the prices that should be paid by the farms 
for the used equipment being transferred from the 
state-owned MTS's to the state -controlled collec- 
tive farms. 

At the time of our visit, much of this transfer of 
ownership had been carried out. 

State farms have always had jurisdiction over 
the equipment they use. Therefore, with the aboli- 
tion of the MTS's, collective farms may gradually 
approach a par with state farms, so far as equip- 
ment is concerned. 

Repair Technical Stations 

Whereas the MTS serviced about 10 or more 
collective farms, one RTS now services the farms 
previously covered by 3, 4, or more MTS's. 

The RTS assembles orders for tractors and 
equipment from the farms and then forwards re- 
quests to the planning agencies so that production 
schedules can be worked out for delivery of equip- 
ment on a quarterly basis. 

Collective and state farms place their requests 
with the Repair Technical Station for equipment 
they want to purchase during the year and take 
delivery each quarter. These requests are sub- 
mitted to the Ministry of Agriculture. The Ministry 
assembles them, and they are discussed by the 
Scientific Council of Agriculture. 

The Scientific Council of Agriculture then takes 
its recommendations to GOSPLAN, the overall 
planning and control group. 

GOSPLAN fits the recommendations into the 
general overall economy and designates which 
factories will produce what and how many. 

The RTS not only distributes the manufactured 
equipment to the farms, but also does the major 
repair work on all equipment, especially tractors, 
and in most cases supplies fuel, oil, grease, 


fertilizers, pesticides and other supplies, and im- 
portant technical and supervisory services attend- 
ant to the farm equipment industry. It also displays 
equipment and holds demonstrations, distributes 
literature, and performs other general services and 
educational functions relating to the mechanization 
of agriculture. 

The RTS has its own staff of workers, techni- 
cians, engineers, and other necessary help. Each 
year it makes agreements with the farms it serves 
and by which it is paid for services performed. 

The RTS still has rather rigid control over op- 
eration of tractors. For example, daily reports on 
amount of work done and fuel consumed are man- 

No equipment can be traded in, although a farm 
can sell used equipment to another farm if a buyer 
can be found. 

Nearly every collective and state farm has fairly 
good machine shop and repair facilities; but for 
major repair jobs, tractors and equipment are 
taken to the RTS's. 

It is a rather determined practice to have every 
tractor brought to the RTS for a complete overhaul 
once every 2 years, but apparently the farms have 
some choice as to when they bring them in and 
what repairs are made. The facilities we saw at 
the RTS's were good. 

When the RTS repairs an engine or replaces one 
in a tractor, the farm is charged the cost of the 
repairs plus rental of equipment used while re- 
pairs are in progress. We were told that the aver- 
age cost of rebuilding a tractor is about 20 percent 
of the original cost. 

During the peak season the RTS, tractor opera- 
tors, and combine operators work "around the 
clock." The operators work in two shifts, 10 
hours each. 

Drivers and operators are trained in trade 
schools. A "Review Commission" considers both 
practical tests and written tests prior to issuing 
operators' licenses. Licenses are issued in two 
grades, 1st and 2d, and operators are relicensed 
each year. 

Our group visited several RTS's including one 
at Kharkov and another near Krasnodar. 

The Kharkov RTS provides service to 19 farms 
and 50 other enterprises, in an area approximately 
50 kilometers in radius. It has about 40 personnel, 
including 20 engineers and other technical men, 
and provides service for more than 200 tractors 
and 100 combines. In addition, about 60 machine 
operators work on the farms and cooperate in re- 
pair programs with the RTS. Two-way radios 
connecting the RTS and the tractor and combine 
brigade camps, together with mobile repair shops, 
help to keep the machines operating during rush 

A schedule of repair and maintenance of tractors 
and machines is set up by agreement with the col- 
lective and state farms, the major overhauls taking 

place during the autumn and winter. The machine 
operators help the repair staff. Complete disas- 
sembly and repair is given a tractor at about 4, 500 
hectares (approximately 10,000 hours). 

The Kharkov RTS adds about 12.8 percent to the 
"factory" price of the machines as a handling 
charge. It accepts no trade-ins. The RTS sends 
out forms on which orders are placed for machines 
and tractors. Orders for 1959 tractors and com- 
bines had been placed prior to our visit on Septem- 
ber 5, 1958. This RTS does not conduct an educa- 
tional program. Repair kits and subunit parts 
(such as fuel pumps, transmissions, and starting 
engines) are available for sale or temporary re- 
placementwhile damaged units are being repaired. 
The RTS has special machines for rent to prevent 
crop disasters. 

This RTS is self supporting, with the exception 
of three state -paid specialists— the chief inspector, 
inspector, and agronomist. The agronomist is 
concerned with diseases, pest control, and the like, 
whereas the inspectors are concerned with the 
proper use and maintenance of all tractors and 
machines. They give advice and recommendations 
regarding care and maintenance. If no attention is 
given to "advice” the inspector has the authority to 
suspend the operator’s license. He has authority 
to collect damage costs from the salary of the op- 
erator if the damage is due to negligence or mis- 
use. Collection is arranged through the bookkeeper 
for the farm. The judgment of the inspector is 
based on "well-known" rules of operation. An ex- 
ample is the rule for "thorough inspection” after 
1,500 hours of operation. If the rule is not com- 
plied with, there is first a warning and then some 
action by the inspector. The record keeper for the 
brigade makes daily reports on the kinds of oper- 
ation and the machines used with each tractor. 

The new parts building of the Kharkov RTS was 
relatively small. They had a nice machine shop, a 
short assembly line for the repaired tractors, 
engine dynamometers, fuel injection unit repair 
and test section, sheds for new machines, fuel de- 
livery trucks, repair trucks, and a large area sur- 
rounding the buildings. 

The Krasnodar RTS is similar to but larger than 
the Kharkov RTS. It has responsibility for 450 
tractors, 400 trucks, and 150 grain combines. 
There are 180 workers plus 31 engineers and other 

Machine Test Stations 

Machine Test Stations (MST's), as their name 
implies, were organized to evaluate the prototype 
machines developed by the various research and 
machine building institutes and construction bu- 
reaus. Our group visited several MTS's and found 
the time both interesting and profitable. We were 
told that 23 MTS's are now functioning and 3 more 
are being organized. 


The testing season is from April to December. 
The usual practice is to test two machines of each 
model. The factory representative may be present 
and, if he disagrees with the findings, he may write 
a report which is considered by the Scientific 
Council of the Agricultural Ministry. Results of 
the tests are published in the Agricultural Ministry 
magazine, "Tractors and Agricultural Machines." 
We were told that in the near future bulletins will 
be published showing specifications, identification 
of the manufacturing plant, and test results. 

The "state" standards for testing machines and 
tractors are prepared by many scientists from the 
different educational and research institutes and 
approved by the Scientific Council. Reports on 
tests, covering quality of work, labor required, 
reliability, ease of handling, safety, amount of 
metal used in construction, and the like, are made 
to the Council. 

The Kuban Institute for Testing Tractors and Ag- 
ricultural Machinery, near Krasnodar, is primarily 

a research institute concerned with methods and 
equipment for testing. Its employees claim that it 
is the only institute o f its kind in the U.S.S.R. Spe- 
cial attention is given to basic requirements for 
machines and tractors and to methods for evaluat- 
ing equipment used in new mechanized processes 
for agricultural production. This institute has 184 
employees, including 30 engineers, 10 agronomists, 
and 4 economists. 

Experimental equipment at the Kuban Institute 
included strain gage instruments, recording draft- 
type dynamometers, and an electric dynamometer 
for testing tractor engines. Experimental machines 
included a new crawler tractor, a mounted duck- 
foot cultivator, and a combine modified for castor 
bean harvesting. 

The institute was also testing some foreign ma- 
chines. We observed a Sheppard diesel tractor 
(made in the U.S.A.) and two Fiat tractors (made 
in Italy), and the director indicated that two A. O. 
Smith glasslined silos (U.S.A.) were under test. 



Figure 3. — One of several experimental corn 
"snapper -cutter s" observed under test at the 
Ukraine Machine Test Station. 


Organization of Collective Farms 

A collective farm is called a "voluntary associ- 
ation of peasant farmers." The collective farm 
members "elect" or sustain a chairman, who maybe 
selected from outside the membership. They also 
endorse a board selected from the membership. 

The number of board members varies among farms. 

One collective farm we visited has a board of 11 
and a revision committee of 7. Another has aboard 
of 9 and a revision committee of 5. The chairman 
and the board members are elected for a term of 
1 or 2 years, but any of them can be ousted by 
decision of a general meeting at any time. 

Each collective farm holds monthly management 
conferences, division meetings, and an annual 
meeting (which sometimes lasts all day). 

Figure 4.— A potato harvester under test near 
Barnaul in Siberia. 


The chairman, along with the collective farm 
board, draws up the program for the year. He 
must report at the annual meeting. 

Each collective farm has a District Executive 
Committee made up of specialists who are em- 
ployees of the Republic. This committee inspects 
and supervises the collective farm operations, sets 
quotas, approves programs, and sees that plans 
are carried out on the farms. The Communist 
Party organization also supervises. 

It is part of the function of the Ministry of Agri- 
culture of the Republic (within the framework laid 
down by the U.S.S.R. Ministry of Agriculture) to 
oversee the work of its regional and district com- 
mittees. The budget is approved by the Ministry 
of Agriculture of the Republic. 


Detailed records are kept of work performed, 
and each worker shares in the income of the com- 
mon enterprise. 

We were told that each month the collective 
farmers get an advance on future income. At the 
end of the year, when all information is in and re- 
corded, a final distribution of income is made to 
each member on the basis of workday units and 
work performance norms. 

Each collective farm family is allowed to use a 
small plot of land (usually not exceeding 1 acre) 
for a garden, fruit trees, raising chickens, a cow, 
a few pigs, and similar enterprises. 

We learned of various schemes and efforts to 
get the farmers to spend less time on their own 
plots and more effort on the large collective enter- 
prises. For example, the collective farm some- 
times sells the farmer milk for one-half or one- 
third the price received for milk delivered to the 

Outstanding workers who have filled many times 
their quotas or their daily norms are rewarded for 
their efforts, and they are held up as ideals to 
work toward. People are paid incentives for pro- 
duction over quotas or for their efforts to reach 
the records set by the people who have received 

Officials claim that what is inspiring to the 
people is that these innovators or front-rank work- 
ers enjoy fame and honor and become distinguished 
people regardless of their origin— whether they 
have been peasants, executives, or government 
workers, or leaders in the Communist Party. 

Here in essence is what we were told at the 
Lenin Collective Farm near Zaporozhe: 

At the annual meeting, a board of nine people is 
elected, also a separate revision board of five 
people. They determine the amount of work that 
is to be considered a workday and the days on 
which workers are paid. 

For technical advice, a Regional Agricultural 
Executive Committee of 18 is elected. Each oblast 
nominates one candidate for the executive com- 
mittee. The name is finally placed on the ballot by 
theelectoral committee. When we inquired further, 
we were told that there are really two elections. 
One is the election of the electoral committee by 
open ballot. Most of these people are from trade 
unions. Then there is the final vote on the candi- 
date by secret ballot. 

This committee meets at least once a year. If a 
worker is dissatisfied with his pay for workday 
units, he sees this committee, which sets quotas 
and workday units. 

The committee elects its own chairman, and its 
decisions must be approved by a general meeting 
of the able-bodied people who have a right to vote. 
At the annual meeting, the general body can dis- 
approve and change the workday units. Work units 
may be changed from year to year as output varies. 

Differences in work units between collective farms 
are not great. 

The committee has a number of divisions such 
as education, public health, and agriculture (Re- 
gional Agricultural Board). 

When some emergency arises that is not covered 
by the program for the year (such as costs or re- 
vision of the building program), a meeting is called. 

We were told that if a state official finds some- 
thing he thinks is not right on the farm, he can 
make recommendations for consideration by the 
chairman and the board, but the final decision 
rests with the farmers at their general assembly. 

At the Telman Collective Farm, Minsk Region, 
the chairman's salary is based on 120 workdays 
per month. This is fixed at a general meeting and 
amounts to 2,500 rubles per month, plus 1 percent 
of the farm's gross income. The salaries of the 
agronomist and the agricultural engineer are 80 
percent of that of the chairman (or 96 workdays), 
plus 1/2 of 1 percent of the gross income. 

A norm is set on this farm, but a good worker 
can fill two or three norms in 1 day. The norms, 
as recommended by a committee, must be approved 
at a general meeting on the farm. A quorum con- 
sists of three-quarters of the able -bodied workers. 

Rather than altering the base pay of tractor 
drivers and other skilled workers the number of 
workday credits per actual day worked is in- 
creased, possibly up to 3 workday units per day. 

This farm has a Regional Executive Committee 
supervised by employees of the Republic's Minis- 
try of Agriculture. This committee has several 
divisions, including education and agriculture. 
Probably some committee members are elected, 
but most are staff people; and they supervise the 
details of operation of the collective farm. 

Organization of State Farms 

As the name indicates, state farms are outright 
state enterprises. All farmworkers, from the direc- 
tor to the field workers, are employees of the state. 

State farms often operate alongside collective 
farms. Virtually all "new lands" agricultural de- 
velopments are state farms, and more and more 
farmland is coming under state farm operation. 
There are indications that government leaders 
would like all farms eventually to be state farms. 

State farms are favored for electrification, 
mechanization, and other modernization. For ex- 
ample, we were told that 40 percent of the collec- 
tive farms have electricity, whereas all state farms 
are electrified. 

State farms are larger than collective farms. 
As stated earlier, the MTS’s did not serve state 
farms, as each farm owned its own equipment, but 
now the RTS's serve state farms just as they do 
collective farms. 

A state farm is responsible to the Regional Ex- 
ecutive Committee of the Republic's Ministry of 


Agriculture, which is under the supervision of the 
U.S.S.R. Ministry of Agriculture. 

Each employee is paid wages and each family 
has the use of a small plot, somewhat similar to 
the system on collective farms. 

Some state farms are general farms, but most 
are specialized, such as grain, dairy, and sugar 
beet farms. 

There are trade unions for state farms for all 
the U.S.S.R. We asked whether it was necessary 
for a worker to belong and were told, "It is not 
compulsory but very convenient, and all do." 
There are no strikes. 

Equipment on Collective and State Farms 

Table 1 shows the size of operations of the 
farms we visited. Note that the smallest collective 
was only a little over 3,000 acres while the state 
farm "Altai" was over 100,000 acres. In 1956, 
somewhat less than 80,000 collectives had an aver- 
age of about 4,000 acres in crops. In 1S56, each of 
about 5,800 state farms had an average of more 
than 15,000 acres in crops. By plan the collec- 
tives are gradually diminishing in number as they 
are being merged into larger collectives or state 

Table 1. — Typical statistics from collective and state farms 















Milk State 










Approximate total. . .acres 








... do 







Per worker . . . . 

... do 



x 39 




Per tractor . . . . 

... do 









. number 







Farmworkers. . . 




2 700 





Corn silage . . . . 


















3 4,008 






Machine Inventory: 


. number 















Ensilage harvester do 







1 Based on an average of 1,000 workers. 
^Regular workers, plus 600 to 700 seasonal. 
^Includes rye, barley, and oats. 


Scientific establishments are divided into three 

(1) Academies, which are the highest scientific 
centers of the U.S.S.R. and the Union of the Re- 
publics, leading among them being the U.S.S.R. 
Academy of Science. 

(2) Higher educational establishments, which 
are not only educational but research centers. 

(3) Scientific and research establishments, main- 
tained by the Ministries, Departments, Soviets, 
Working People’s Deputies, and public organiza- 
tions (the latter nearly always refers to the Com- 
munist Party). 

The U.S.S.R. Academy of Science's primary func- 
tion is to promote the general progress of theoret- 
ical and applied sciences, and it is directly subord- 
inate to the Presidium. It is composed of honorary 
members and members of the Academy (academi- 
cians) who meet in general meetings. The Academy 
of Science elects a president for a term of 5 years. 

Research establishments affiliated with the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Science include 60 or more 
scientific institutes and 6 institute branches, plus 
numerous other scientific experiment stations, in- 
cluding observatories, botanical gardens, and the 


There are academies of Medical Science, Arts, 
Construction and Architecture. 

The Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences of 
the U.S.S.R. was founded in 1929 and is located in 
Moscow. It has the following sections: 

(1) Agriculture 

(2) Animal Husbandry 

(3) Mechanization and Electrification of Agri- 

(4) Hydroengineering and Amelioration 

(5) Forestry and Farm Forest Amelioration 

(6) Organization of Agricultural Production 

In addition to numerous institutes, there are in- 
dividual memberships and corresponding mem- 

Scientific titles awarded include: 

(1) Doctor of Science, the highest scientific de- 
gree in the U.S.S.R., is awarded to people over and 
beyond the Candidate of Technical Science (Master 
of Science) degree. 

(2) Titles of Assistant Professor and Professor 
are conferred by higher educational institutions. 


As in the U.S.A., educational institutions do re- 
search as well as teaching. However, special at- 
tention should be given to some research institutes. 

The All-Union Research Institute for Mechani- 
zation of Agriculture. Moscow (chart 3), deals 
mainly with the mechanization of field work. The 
institute has a total staff of 500 persons and 20 
laboratories concerned with research related to 
design, development of prototypes, and design 
analysis of agricultural machines and tractors. It 
is also concerned with electrification mechaniza- 
tion of animal production operations. 

The Research Institute for Repair and Use of 
Tractors and Machines , Minsk, is financed by the 
Ministry of Agriculture and operates as an experi- 
mental manufacturing plant, but studies work quotas 
and standards of what tractors should be able to 
do, depending on conditions in various localities. 

It devises machines to assist in the repair of trac- 
tors. Its research is coordinated with related 
work at 200 similar institutes, 42 centers, and 20 
institutes on research. It reports findings to these 
institutes and publishes booklets on repairs, simi- 
lar to booklets issued by private firms in the U.-S.A. 

The Institute has a total staff of 342, including 42 
engineers and other scientific workers. 

The Ukraine Research Institute for Farm Mech- 
anization and Electrification , Kiev, has a staff that 
is said to include 260 professional people working 
on problems encountered on collective and state 
farms. The research proposals, which appear to 

(3) Titles conferred by the scientific institutes 
are: Junior Scientific Worker, Senior Scientific 
Worker, and Professor. 

(4) Titles in the academies are: Members, Acad- 
emicians, and Corresponding Members. 

Many scientific societies of the U.S.S.R. are 
closely connected with the U.S.S.R. Academy of 
Science and with other academies such as the Lenin 
Academy of Agricultural Sciences. For example, 
related to agriculture would be botanical, hydro - 
logical, entomological, soil science societies, and 
the like. We were told there is a special society 
for agricultural engineers. Two other organiza- 
tions of interest to agricultural engineers are the 
Moscow Mathematical Society, founded in 1867, 
and the Scientific and Engineering Society. 

Distinctions are conferred on outstanding scien- 
tists and engineers by the various union republics 
and the U.S.S.R., under such titles as "Honored 
Worker of Science," "Honored Worker of Science 
and Engineering," and "Hero of Socialist Labor." 

We do not recall meeting anyone who had re- 
ceived the first two titles, but we did see collec- 
tive farm chairmen and others who had conferred 
upon them the title "Hero of Socialist Labor." 


concentrate on application and design analysis, are 
presented to the Ukraine Academy of Agricultural 
Science as part of a total research program. Al- 
though some prototype machines are developed, 
the latter job is left mainly to the Machine Build- 
ing Institutes. 

The All-Russia Research Institute for Mechani- 
zation and Electrification , near Rostov-on-Don, 
has a staff of 450 including 110 with higher educa- 
tion. Problems are concerned mainly with the 
technical management and repair of the tractor 
and machinery fleets used on the large farms. 
However, this Institute, the chief research and 
machine testing station for the Russian Soviet 
Federated Socialist Republic, had by far the most 
active projects pertaining to farmstead mechani- 
zation of any place we visited. 

The U.S.S.R . Research Instit ute for Farm Ma- 
chine Building, Moscow, is responsible to GOS- 
PLAN, although it cooperates rather closely with 
the Institute of Farm Mechanization and Electrifi- 
cation. Whereas the Mechanization Institute is 
primarily interested in basic requirements of ma- 
chines, the Machine Building Institute is directed 
more to machine design and research with ele- 
ments of machines. This Institute cooperates with 
the machine construction bureaus in factories. It 
took the leadership in designing and developing 
prototype cotton and tea production machinery 
since there are no special construction bureaus 
for these machines. 



_ O' 

x 0 

u < 


< IJ ~ 

m O 




U *- 



to O 


Z X 
3 ►“ 



The total staff is about 700 of which approxi- 
mately 50 percent have higher education. Ninety 
of the latter are women. 

The Machine Building Institute had a special 
"measurements" laboratory employing 10 instru- 
ment designers. Indoor soil bins nearly 300 feet 
long were a part of the tillage laboratory. The 
stress-measurement laboratory was impressive be- 
cause of its glass -enclosed instrument room, TV- 
type instrument consoles, and large testing floor. 

The All-Union Research Institute on Rural Elec- 
trification, near Zaporozhe, had 25 engineers and 
other scientists working on applications of elec- 
tricity to agriculture. The three divisions of their 
work were: Application of electricity to plant and 
crop production, power plants and electrical dis- 
tribution systems, and high frequency applications 
in agriculture. 

Figure 5. —Experimental tractor tire, 840 millime- 
ter s wide, inflated to approximately 1/2 - atmosphere 
pressure. (The Research Institute for Repair and 
Use of Tractors and Machines, Minsk.) (BN-8898) 

Figure 6. —Experimental single-row silage har- 
vester with vertical cutting rolls. (The All-Russia 
Institute for Mechanization and Electrification, 
Rostov-on-Don.) (BN-8899) 

Figure 7. —Experimental storage of silage between 
stacks of straw. (The All -Russia Institute for 
Mechanization and Electrification, Rostov-on-Don.) 
( BN -8900) 


What kind of an education is provided for the 
people in the Soviet Union— a country where mech- 
anization has virtually replaced the wooden plow 
in a few years? Where practically everyone is 
literate ? Where scientific work is attracting the 
attention of the outside world? In the last 10 years, 
mechanization of agriculture has produced 170,000 
corn pickers and silage combines, 30,000 sugar 
beet harvesters, 500,000 combines, and 330,000 
windrowers. Field operations such as plowing, 
seeding, cultivating, and harvesting are almost 
entirely mechanized. There are still many horses 
and a few oxen, but they are used mainly for trans- 
portation operations. 

Educational Facilities 

The Ministry of Higher Education has adminis- 
trative responsibility for the teaching programs of 
the Institutes for Farm Mechanization and Elec- 
trification. Their research programs are appar- 
ently administered jointly by the Ministry of Agri- 
culture and the Agricultural Academy of Science. 
Chart 4 gives the general layout of educational 
administration in the U.S.S.R. 

The director of an Institute for Mechanization of 
Agriculture is responsible to the Ministry of Agri- 
culture of the U.S.S.R. or to the Minister of Agri- 
culture of the Republic in which the institute is 





Figure 8. — Experimental conveyor designed to 
transport silage from the between -stacks storage 
shown in figure 7. (BN-8901) 

PacnomxeHue npuBopob npu duHOMOMempupoBaHuu 
Ha6eCHblX moluuh. CxeMa ti°2 

Figure 10. —Schematic diagram of the apparatus 
shown in figure 9. (BN-8903) 

Figure 9- — A well -instrumented tractor mounting 
for measuring the horizontal, vertical, and side 
reactions exerted by three -point mounted imple- 
ments. (The Research Institute for Farm Machine 
Building, Moscow.) (BN-8902) 

located. The director receives about four times 
the income of a beginning engineer. There may be 
several professors in a department of the institute. 
The head of the department is the one who occu- 
pies the chair, and he may or may not be a pro- 
fessor. Often an associate professor is the head 
of the department, and he is responsible for the ad- 
ministration of the teaching and research program. 

One is impressed by the large number of centers 
of higher education and research. In Moscow there 

Figure 11.— Left, Soil bin for experimental tests 
of tillage implements. Right, a long track for 
checking the performance of seed planters. (The 
Research Institute for Farm Machine Building, 
Moscow.) ( BN -8904) 

are 103 institutes; in Minsk, 11; in Kiev, 13; in 
Kharkov, 57; in Leningrad, 52; in addition, each area 
has a university. The U.S.S.R. has 735 institutes, 
and 33 universities (which compare to our college 
and universities), and 3,500 technical or trade 

Of the 200 million people living in the U.S.S.R., 
2 million are students in technical institutes and 
universities. Another 2 million are in technical 
schools (trade and vocational study). The insti- 
tutes train students for special fields such as 
radio, steel, milk, meat, languages, machine tools, 
metallurgy, electronics, and agricultural engi- 


Figure 12. —Experimental plow equipped with glass 
moldboard. (The Research Institute for Farm 
Building, Moscow.) (BN-8905) 

The U.S.S.R. graduated 71,000 engineers in 1956, 
whereas the U.S. A. graduated 26,000. In the U.S.A. 
there are 1,800 colleges and universities with 
3,500,000 students and 196,000 full-time college 
teachers operating on a total budget of about $3 

Listed below are the educational and research 
centers we visited during our tour of Russia: 

The Research Institute of Farm Mechanization, 

The Institute of Farm Mechanization and Elec- 
trification, Moscow. 

The Institute of Technology and Repair, Moscow. 

The Byelorussian Institute of Mechanization and 
Electrification of Agriculture, Minsk. 

Ukraine National Research Institute for Farm 
Mechanization and Electrification, Kiev. 

Ukraine Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kiev. 

All-Union Research Institute of Farm Electrifi- 
cation, Zaporozhe. 

All-Russia Institute for Farm Mechanization, 

Kuban Research Institute for Tractor and Ma- 
chine Testing, Krasnodar. 

Milk State Farm School, Altai, near Barnaul in 

The Institute of Constructors Bureau for Farm 
Machine Testing (GOSPLAN), Moscow. 

University of Moscow, Moscow. 

Educational Pattern 

Training in the U.S.S.R. begins in either 7-year 
or 10-year schools; the former are more common 
in the rural areas and the latter in the cities. A 
student with the necessary grades and interests 
can go from the 7-year school to the 4-year tech- 
nical high school. If he stops his training at this 
point, he is a technician. Under special programs, 
the qualified graduate of the technical high school 
can go to an institute and receive a diploma, such 

as Diploma Engineer. The more common method 
is to graduate from the 10-year school and attend 
an institute for 5 years after which the student re- 
ceives a degree, such as Diploma Engineer. With 
the necessary qualifications the student can go 
from the 10-year school to the university, which 
requires from 5 to 5-1/2 years to receive a de- 
gree, such as Diploma Mathematics. After receiv- 
ing the Diploma, which is equivalent to the Bachelor 
of Science, students may earn the Candidate of 
Technical Science degree, which is equivalent to 
our Master of Science, and the Doctor of Technical 
Science degree, roughly equivalent to our Ph. D. 
degree. Degrees are given in Physical Science, 
Arts, or Technical Science, depending on the field. 
Advanced study includes mainly researchwork with 
few or no additional courses. In addition to the 
plans mentioned above, the degree Diploma Engi- 
neer can be obtained by correspondence study, as 
described on page 19. 

The 10-year school we visited had 42 teachers 
for 652 students. 

The various educational programs may be sum- 
marized as follows: 

High School 
10 years 

5 years 

Diploma, Engineer* 

High School 
10 years 

5 years 

Diploma, Candidate 
of Technical 

High School 
7 years 

' I 

Technical High School 

4 years 



5 years 

Diploma, Engineer* 

Candidate of Science 
(Research and Thesis) 


Doctor of Science 
(Research and Thesis) 

By a recent edict of Khrushchev, most students 
are to obtain 2 years of practical experience be- 
fore going on to higher education. 

Agricultural Engineering 

The U.S.S.R. has 7 institutes for the Mechaniza- 
tion and Electrification of Agriculture devoted to 
training agricultural engineers, and 50 other in- 
stitutes have a faculty (department) of Agricultural 
Engineering. Students enter these institutes after 
10-year school or 7-year school plus technical 
high school. Each institute has from 1,000 to 2,000 

The educational programs for Agricultural Engi- 
neering are operated under the Ministry of Agri- 
culture and must be approved by the Ministry of 

* After completing study course each student must 
present a technical thesis to a state commission 
which must approve the granting of the degree 
"Diploma Engineer." Some Institutes offer grad- 
uate work leading to the Candidate and Doctor 
degrees . 


Higher Education. An institute for the Mechaniza- 
tion and Electrification of Agriculture may include 
departments of Applied Mechanics, Thermal Tech- 
nology, Mathematics, Design, Tractor and Auto- 
mobile, Harvesting Machinery, Tillage Machinery, 
Economics, Electrical Engineering, Mechanization 
of Animal Husbandry, Agronomy, and Electricity 
in Agriculture. The departmental structure varies 
from one institute to another but is based on sub- 
jects very similar to those in the U.S.A. 

Institute Student 

How does one become a student in one of the in- 
stitutions of higher learning, particularly in an 
institute for engineering such as Agricultural Engi- 
neering? If a person is 18 years of age and under 
35 years and has graduated from a 10-year school 
or technical high school he can apply for admis- 
sion. Competitive examinations are given by the 
institute. About 25 percent of those examined are 
admitted. Of those admitted, 95 percent complete 
the 5-year program of 10 months of study per year, 
6 days per week. 

Oral and written examinations are given during 
a 20- to 25-day period twice a year. If a student 
fails a subject, he does not have to repeat the work 
if he can pass another examination. If he fails 
more than one course, he must repeat all courses. 

The institute provides stipends for 90 to 95 per- 
cent of the students. The stipend for the first year 
is 300 rubles per month and for the fifth year, 480 
rubles per month with 20 percent extra added for 
those with high grades. The official (and unreal- 
istic) exchange rate is 25 cents per ruble. How- 
ever, the tourist exchange rate is 10 cents per 
ruble. The latter rate is more in line with prices 
paid for items in the U.S.A. Married students re- 
ceive the same stipend, but their attendance is not 
encouraged. Most of the stipend is required for 
room (30 rubles per month) and board (250 rubles 
per month and up). Tuition, supplies, and books 
are furnished. 

As an additional stimulus for studying, students 
who receive superior grades get first choice of 
jobs available on graduation. Pictures of students 
who receive superior grades are displayed in the 
entrances of the teaching institutes. 

The student studies general and basic courses 
the first 2 years, and specializes in the major field 
the last 3 years. He spends 50 percent of his time 
in laboratory and practical work, 25 percent in 
lecture, and 25 percent in working on project and 
research for the thesis. He devotes from 28 to 36 
hours per week or 800 to 1,000 hours per year 
during the first 4 years to the studies. He must 
write a suitable thesis to receive a Diploma Engi- 
neer degree. Engineering students in the U.S.S.R. 
spend approximately the same time as students in 
the U.S.A. in mathematics, mechanics, strength of 
materials, kinematics, thermodynamics, and more 

time in machine design, tractor design, repair and 
practical applications, and less or very little time 
in humanities, languages, and natural science at 
the institute level. 

A typical program of study for an agricultural 
engineering student at an institute is as follows: 


Mathematics (same as at University) .... 340 

Strength of materials 190 

Kinematics 120 

Parts of machines 200 

Mechanics 180 

Hydraulics 70 

Electrical engineering 130 

Technology of wood and metals 390 

Allowances and measurements 90 

Additional lecture on above subjects .... 40 

Laboratory 40 

Thesis 10 

Fuel and grease, including laboratory ... 50 

Thermodynamics and steam 150 

Agricultural subjects covering soils, 

plant breeding and crops, etc 160 

Agricultural machinery 250 

Tractors and automobiles 280 

Mechanization of animal husbandry .... 110 

Repair of agricultural machinery 

and tractors 180 

Application of machinery and tractors . . . 180 

Economical organization and use of 

machinery 150 

Electrical drive and application of 

electricity 100 

Total class time 3,410 

To this must be added time spent on practical 
work in the field, and 4 months for preparing a 
diploma engineer thesis on a subject selected 
from a list provided by the faculty. 

Another program in agricultural engineering 
included a total of 4,670 hours not including the 
final examination, of which 2,380 hours were for 
lectures, 820 hours for laboratories in the insti- 
tute, 1,250 hours for practical work in the field, 
and 130 hours for seminar, working on an assigned 

All students have the right to apply for advanced 
work leading to the Candidate of Technical Science 
degree. Only the best students are permitted to go 
directly to work on the Candidate degree while 
others may be permitted to pursue the degree after 
passing an examination. In an exceptional case, 
because of outstanding research accomplishments, 
a student may work toward the Doctor of Technical 
Science degree without first obtaining the Candi- 
date degree. Students may work on an acceptable 
and approved thesis while on the job after gradua- 
tion. Advanced degrees are awarded by the 


Scientific Council of the U.S.S.R. Military training 
is not compulsory for students attending the uni- 
versities and institutes. If a graduate of the Insti- 
tute of Agricultural Mechanization wants to do de- 
sign work and has the ability, he can go into design 
in a separate machinery institute after he is out of 
school, or he can transfer while in school if he 
receives the approval of the two directors. Usually 
this is not done. 

From 4,000 to 5,000 students, of which 85 to 90 
percent are men, graduate each year from the 
5 -year program in Agricultural Engineering. This 
program is very similar to the 4-year courses in 
the U.S.A. except that it provides more practical 
training. More practical training is required be- 
cause the students do not have the opportunity to 
develop mechanical skills in previous years. In 
comparison, most Agricultural Engineering cur- 
ricula in the U.S.A. have broadening courses in the 
humanities that are not included in the U.S.S.R. 
curricula. In Russia, principles and practices of 
government and languages are taught before the 
institute and university level. Graduates of the 
Institutes for the Mechanization and Electrification 
of Agriculture go into occupations for the "exploi- 
tation” of tractors and machinery. Twenty percent 
of the graduates go into research and the remainder 
into production phases. 

The reasons given for so many students in Agri- 
cultural Engineering are as follows: (1) The popu- 
lation is largely rural; (2) many jobs are available 
in both agriculture and industry and the institutes 
have a very close connection with both; (3) the 
government pays more money for • engineers who 
work in agriculture than for the engineers who 
work in industry. 


Teachers are appointed for a 5-year term. They 
must reapply and must have done an approved job 
to maintain the appointment. Pay is based on pro- 
duction, not length of service. There is consider- 
able competition for vacancies, because the pay is 
higher in educational institutions than in industry. 

A professor works 6 hours per day, 6 days per 
week. Two hours per day of lectures is considered 
a full load. Teachers in institutes usually spend 
about 50 percent of their time on research. In 
practice they spend about one -fourth of their time 
on research during the regular teaching year and 
the other fourth in preparation of lectures, and 
classes and counseling with students. Post- 
graduate (graduate) degree programs are available 
in institutes with well-trained staffs. The univer- 
sity and institute teacher is both respected and 
well paid. All salaries are set by the U.S.S.R. 
Council of Ministers. The base salary does not 
represent total income, because additional pay 
may be earned by approval of a new machine de- 
sign, consulting with industry, committee work, 

and writing. Examples of the monthly starting 
salaries of several jobs follow: 


Minimum wage in U.S.S.R 350 

Elementary teaching 580 

Upper grade school 780 

Technical workers 500-1.500 

Starting engineer 900 

Foreman 2,000 

Chief engineer 2,000 

College teacher with Candidate of 

Technical Science Degree 2,700 

University teacher 3,300 

College teacher with Doctor of 

Technical Science Degree 4,000 

Professor with 10 years of service 5,500 

Academician 6,000 

Outstanding research workers can be appointed 
as Academicians and receive extra pay in addition 
to their regular salaries. The most respected ap- 
pointment is Academician of the All-Union Acad- 
emy of Science. Similar recognition may be given 
by the Academy of Agricultural Science and by 
several of the republics which have an Academy of 
Science separate from the National Academy. Fifty 
percent extra pay can be received by working with 
industry as a consultant. 

The man who developed a mower that was later 
manufactured received the maximum cash award 
of 200,000 rubles. The maximum payment for an 
"idea" is 20,000 rubles. In all, 17,000 premiums 
were paid to engineers in agriculture in 1957. 
These awards provide a tremendous incentive. 
Patents may be granted to citizens of the U.S.S.R. 

There is one faculty member for each 10 to 12 
undergraduate students, while 4 to 6 graduate stu- 
dents may be assigned to top-ranking faculty mem- 
bers to do research for advanced degrees. There 
is one teacher for each 60 correspondence stu- 
dents. About 15 percent of the faculty hold full 
professor rank. 

A relatively high percentage of the teaching and 
research staffs can read English— a few can speak 
it to a limited extent. One language in addition to 
Russian is required in the 5-year program. 

Faculty members usually live close to the insti- 
tute or university in housing provided. Few of 
them have cars. 

Laboratory Facilities 

The various institutes had excellent laboratory 
facilities and instruments, which were used inter- 
changeably for teaching and research. Included 
was equipment for testing diesel pumps; vibration 
analysis; metallurgical, grain structure, and hard- 
ness of material; electrical generation; machine 
shop, forging, and foundry work; measurements; 


harvesting; and spark plugs and electrical study. 
Also available were very accurate instruments, 
such as a large electron microscope, a universal 
microscope for measuring roughness, and equip- 
ment for the use of radioactive materials. In two 
institutes, each laboratory had at least one oscil- 
loscope and some had several. 

Charts and visual aids for teaching were excel- 
lent, including cut-away machines and tractors, 
with charts describing their operation. One insti- 
tute had 30 kilometers of movie film specially 
prepared for teaching. 

Excellent facilities for drafting were available. 
A typical drafting laboratory included 50 to 75 
tables equipped with automatic drawing devices. 
The student must work on his drawing during class 
or at odd times but not outside of the laboratory. 
Drawings are not returned at the end of the year. 

Classroom sections were organized on the basis 
of 30 students. Where considerable laboratory 
equipment was involved, half sections of 15 students 
were organized. An instructor was always on duty 
to help the students, and technicians were available 
for operating the equipment and for shopwork. 


One is impressed by the large number of tech- 
nical books on specialized subjects available for 
students and scientists. Authors are relieved of 
teaching and research responsibilities for writing; 
a 3 -month leave at full pay may be granted by the 
institute director and longer periods of leave at 
full pay may be granted with approval of the Board 
of Agricultural Science. After the book is pub- 
lished, the writer gets a cash payment. The 
Ferguson series of Agricultural Engineering texts 
is now being translated for use in Russia. There 
are many book stores in the cities and the people 
have the habit of reading. 

Correspondence Courses 

Many of the institutes offer correspondence 
courses. These courses require 6 years of con- 
centrated study and students must spend from 1 to 
10 months per year at the institute for refresher 
lectures and consultation. Students may be over 
35 years of age. The student must be working in 
the area of his study so that his experience will 
replace the practical material normally covered 
in the regular 5-year program. Correspondence 
students may take 45 days leave or vacation from 
their work, of which a month is spent at the insti- 
tute for study. 

Foreign Languages 

Considerable emphasis is placed on teaching 
foreign languages in the secondary schools. The 
greatest emphasis is given to English, German, 

and French. Universities require two foreign 
languages and institutes require one for entrance. 
Most 10-year schools start foreign language train- 
ing in the fifth year. Sixty-five percent of the 
students select English as an additional language. 
In a few experimental schools, all courses are 
taught in a foreign language. For example, a student 

Figure 13. — Cut-away tractor engine in teaching 
laboratory. (BN-8906) 

Figure 14. —Cut-away tractor in teaching labora- 
tory. (BN -8907) 

Figure 15.— Panels for parts in engine instruction 
laboratory. (BN-8908) 


studies all of his subject matter courses in English 
from the first grade through graduation. 


Each institute has its own library facilities and 
may have 20,000 to 25,000 volumes. For additional 
references, the Lenin Library in Moscow is used 
which, it is claimed, has over 20 million volumes. 
For scientific workers it has a special room 
equipped with individual desks. The University of 
Moscow has a main library as well as a library 
for each department. 

Most institutes have one or more translators of 
foreign publications, and in each institute we visited 
an English translator was available. Many scien- 
tific workers read technical publications in English. 
It is of interest to note that over 200 copies of 
Agricultural Engineering go to the U.S.S.R. each 


A display of magazines and journals of particu- 
lar interest to agricultural engineers at the Insti- 
tute for Mechanization and Electrification in Mos- 
cow included the following: 

(1) Mechanization and Electrification of Soviet 
Agriculture, published by the Ministry of Agricul- 
ture. Considered good Agricultural Engineering 

(2) Instruments for Experimentation, published 
by the Academy of Science, Moscow. 

(3) Hydraulic Engineering and Amelioration, 
published by the Ministry of Agriculture. 

(4) Science and Progressive Methods of Agri- 
culture, published by the Ministry of Agriculture. 

(5) Tractor and Agricultural Machine Building 
(for Engineers and Technicians) published by the 
U.S.S.R. Academy of Science. 

(6) Tractors and Agricultural Machines, pub- 
lished by the State Scientific Council for Technical 
Information under the Council of Ministers of the 
U.S.S.R. Considered very good Agricultural Engi- 
neering reference. 

(7) Technical Advice to Collective Farms, RTS’s, 
MTS's, and State Farms, published by the Ministry 
of Agriculture. 

(8) Farm Construction, published by the Minis- 
try of Agriculture. Appeared to be good for Agri- 
cultural Engineering reference. 

(9) Agriculture, a bibliography that summarizes 
all foreign publications, published every 10 days 
by the Academy of Agricultural Sciences. 

(10) The Herald of Agricultural Science, which 
includes an English summary, published by the 
Academy of Agricultural Sciences. 

(11) Dairy Industry (Milk Processing), published 
by the State Scientific Council for Technical infor- 

University Training 

The University of Moscow is the epitome of edu- 
cation in the U.S.S.R. It is located principally in 
one building and includes living facilities for stu- 
dents and staff. Each undergraduate student has 8 
square meters of study and sleeping area. Prac- 
tically all students receive stipends. There are 
2,000 faculty members to teach 17,000 students, 
including 6,000 night school students and 1,500 
graduate students. More girls than boys attend the 
University. Beginning in 1959, the entrance re- 
quirements will be changed so that in addition to 
passing an entrance examination, 80 percent of the 
new students will have had 2 years' experience 
after high school. The University has 12 depart- 
ments, as follows: Physical, Chemical, Mathe- 
matical, Geological, Geographical, Philosophical, 
Historical, Philogical, Economics, Law, Journal- 
ism, and Biology and Soil. Basic sciences and 
nonsciences are taught at the University, but not 

Universities in other major cities, such as Kiev, 
Minsk, and Kharkov, are patterned after the Uni- 
versity of Moscow. 


(1) Better use of foreign publications is being 
made in the U.S.S.R. than in the U.S.A. This is 
partly due to the ability of the Russians to read 
foreign languages and to the availability of trans- 
lators at each institute. 

(2) Laboratories are very well equipped, but it 
must be remembered that some of the tools are 
used in connection with governmental activities in 
development, design, and testing of equipment. 

(3) Research tools, such as instrumentation 
equipment, are plentiful and excellent quality but 
are not being used as extensively as is the practice 
in the U.S.A. 

(4) There is a high ratio of faculty to students — 
nearly twice that in the U.S.A. There is more in- 
dividual project work in the undergraduate pro- 
gram, the Diploma Engineer degree requiring a 

(5) Although a high percentage of those who enter 
complete their training in the U.S.S.R., entrance 
is based on an examination. Even though the num- 
ber of dropouts because of failure is higher in the 
U.S.A., this method seems to be fairer for students 
coming from all types of high school backgrounds 
with different educational standards. 

(6) The idea that faculty members in the insti- 
tutes are paid so much more than their counter- 
parts in America is exaggerated. In terms of 
actual standard of living, their returns are lower. 

(7) There is greater opportunity for faculty 
members to earn money, in addition to their regu- 
lar salary, than would be expected in the U.S.A. 


(8) Great scientific progress is being made in 
the U.S.S.R. Scientific workers in the U.S.A. must 
pay more attention to the findings of Soviet work- 
ers to avoid doing work already reported. 

(9) Engineering students in the U.S.A. get better 
instruction in the important basic subjects than 
engineering students in the Soviet institutes. The 
best teachers in mathematics in the U.S.S.R. will 
normally go to the University where their profes- 
sional standing is greater. The college and uni- 
versity system in the U.S.A. is best for training 
for the needs of America, while the method in 

U.S.S.R. is the best for their conditions at present. 
Graduates in the U.S.A. have more flexibility of 
job opportunities. 

(10) The demand for students in specific fields 
can be expected to fluctuate greatly according to 
need and pay as established by government planning 

(11) Textbooks which are available with a large 
amount of technical and theoretical information are 
useful in providing excellent training in agricultural 


Nearly all of the 5,800 state farms and 78,000 
(about 40 percent) of the collective farms are elec- 
trified. This means that about 50 percent of the 
farms in the U.S.S.R. are electrified, which was 
the percentage of electrified farms in the U.S.A. 
in 1945. 

Electricity is provided by stationary steam and 
hydroelectric plants, such as the one we visited in 
Zaporozhe, or by individual generating stations, 
usually powered with diesel engines, on the farm. 
Recent information from the U.S.S.R. indicates 
that future electric power supply will be developed 
mainly from steam power. The U.S.S.R. power 
stations produced 182,000,000 kw.-hr. of electric- 
ity in 1956 compared to 3.8 billion kw.-hr. for the 
U.S.A. Electricity is generally 50 cycle and is 
used at 127/220 volts or 220/380 volts. One might 
find either 127 or 220 volts used for lighting cir- 
cuits and usually 220 or 380 volts for power circuits. 
Standard highline voltages are 10 kv. and 35 kv. 

The Lenin Collective Farm near Zaporozhe had 
a total power requirement from highline of 800 kw. 
with six stationary substations. This farm covered 
about 10,000 acres and was quite diversified with 
cereals, vegetables, fruit, and animal husbandry 
enterprises including 1,600 cattle. Ninety percent 
of the electrified collective farms are served by 

At a 20,000-acre farm near Shipunovo in Siberia, 
the stationary local power plant provided 500 kw., 
and at the 35,000-acre Grain State Farm near 
Krasnodar the local power plant supplied about 
1,500 kw. At the Telman Collective Farm at Minsk 
(about 3, 500 acres and with a large livestock enter- 
prise) 60 electric motors used 220,000 kw.-hr. per 

The cost of electricity is 10 to 19 kopecks per 
kw.-hr. (Zaporozhe), about the same as in the 

The Lenin hydroelectric power plant in Zaporozhe 
is generally off-limits, but we were shown the fa- 
cilities. The dam for the plant on the Dneiper 
River is 750 meters long, is arched upstream, and 
has a 36-meter water height. The diameter of the 
water tubes to the turbine is 7.5 meters. Nine 

generators are now in use, including three im- 
ported General Electric generators. The capacity 
of each generator is 13,800 kw. The plant was 
neat and well managed, with six people operating 
the generating facilities. 

The educational and training program for elec- 
trification is, in general, taught in the Institutes 
for Mechanization and Electrification of Agricul- 
ture, and is very similar to the program for elec- 
trical engineers in the U.S.A. a few years ago. In 
Moscow, the Institute for Electrification of Agri- 
culture offers such courses as Thermodynamics 
and Steam, 150 hours; Electrical Engineering, 130 
hours; Electrical Drive and Application of Elec- 
tricity to Agriculture for Light and Heat, 100 
hours; and Transmission and Generation of Elec- 
tricity. Three-phase electricity receives consid- 
erable emphasis. Most Institutes for Agricultural 
Engineering cover both mechanization and electri- 

The leading electrification research for the 
U.S.S.R., as mentioned previously, was being done 
in the Research Institute of Electrification of Ag- 
riculture at Zaporozhe. The institute is affiliated 
with the Moscow Research Institute and its objec- 
tive is to apply electricity to agriculture. The in- 
stitute has its own experimental farms. The major 
work covers the following: (1) Application of elec- 
tricity to threshing and cleaning, (2) development 
of an electric tractor, of which they have made 80, 
(3) automation of check-row planting, (4) orchard 
uses of electricity, (5) irrigation in the southern 
part of the Ukraine, (6) orchard sprinkler irriga- 
tion, (7) application of electricity to hotbeds and 
greenhouses, (8) influence of light on plants, (9) use 
of high frequency electricity in drying agricultural 
products, and (10) electrification of farmstead 

The institute was determining critical voltages 
for livestock and for humans. Tests were being run 
to determine the effectiveness of infrared for dry- 
ing and for insect control. An infrared source was 
being used to disinfect feedbags. 

Considerable emphasis was being placed on the 
use of electricity for farmstead enterprises, such 


as handling manure, ensilage, and feed. Work is 
being done on cooking fodder for livestock. In 
other research, feed was being moved from silo 
storage to the front of the animals by push-pull 
conveyors, and dropped from the bottom of the 
conveyors to feed all cows in a stall barn at the 
same time. 

High frequency current was being used for crys- 
tallization and surface hardening of metal. High 
frequency brazing was being accomplished by using 
a frequency of 500,000 cycles per second at 8 kv. 
The brazing material was supplied by feeding a 
metal rod into the work at 1 to 2 mm. per revolu- 
tion of the 2-inch diameter shaft being treated. 

Use of high frequency current in a vacuum drier 
was receiving considerable attention. Hay bri- 
quettes 10 cm. thick were dried, using a frequency 
of 3 megacycles in a vacuum of 50 mm. of mer- 
cury. The procedure was to dry alfalfa and clover 
in the field to a moisture content of about 35 to 40 
percent. The hay was then baled into briquettes 
and dried in a vacuum oven at 50° C. (122° F.); 2 
hours was required to decrease the moisture con- 
tent to 8 percent, and 1 kw.-hr. of electricity was 
required to produce 5 pounds of dry hay. 

Considerable effort is being devoted to develop- 
ment of equipment and processes for utilizing 
methane and producing fertilizer from livestock 
manure. Two large methane tanks were being built 
to produce the equivalent of 25 kw. of electricity. 
The gas produced will be compressed into metal 
cylinders and all the manure will be handled me- 
chanically. Production of 250 cubic meters of 
methane gas per day and 2,500 tons of organic 
matter per year from 100 cows is expected. 

The interconnection of wind-propelled generators 
with powerlines was being investigated. Use of 
reinforced concrete poles or bottoms to poles for 
supporting electric transmission lines was being 
developed and applied in a few places. 

Use of electricity in the dairy enterprise is re- 
ceiving considerable attention. Twenty-four auto- 
matic feed mills were put into operation last year. 
Litter carriers, water cups, and feed carts are 
used on many dairy farms. Most cows are milked 
in stanchion barns and the milk is separated on the 
farm or placed in a large bulk tanker for trans- 
porting to town for cooling and processing. Some 
farms have electric -driven milking machines; and 
on most farms young girls, or milkmaids, each 
milk 10 to 20 cows 3 times daily. During the sum- 
mer cows are kept in shed-type shelters, which 
have open sides and consist mainly of a roof with 
supports. Research is being done on farm bulk 
cooling of milk and we saw a one -half ton refrig- 
erated vertical cylindrical bulk tank of double wall 

In one place research was being conducted on an 
electric -driven mower with a diesel 54-hp. tractor 
engine operating a mounted generator that pro- 
duced 25 kw. alternating current at 220 volts. Seven 
mowers with a total cut of 14.7 meters were 
mounted on the track-type unit. The mowers were 
driven by electric motors. A 1.7-kw. motor was 
used on each of 4 side cutterbars and one 4.5-kw. 
motor was used for the 3 front cutterbars. Over- 
load protection was provided for the motors. The 
motor speed for the mowers was 940 r.p.m. The 
application appears useful for wide machines. It 
was stated that the use of electric motors brought 
about a saving of 220 pounds of metal. 

Considerable work has been done on developing 
an electric tractor, which is basically a 54-hp. 
track-type tractor with a 40-kw. (50 to 60 hp.) 
electric motor connected to a 6 to 10 kv. highline. 
Reports as to the voltage actually supplied to the 
motor differed; it may be 1,000 or it may be 380. 
The electric tractor operated at 3 to 5 km. per 
hour, pulled a plow 1.75 meters wide, with a depth 
of cut of 28 cm. A 4-wire cable 750 meters long, 
with a cross section 10 mm2 p er wire, was used 
to supply electricity. 

Most large state and collective farms had heated 
air drying equipment for grain. All driers were 
the vertical column type with inverted open bottom 
channels approximately 1 foot apart for directing 
the air flow. Alternate channels were for air inlet 
and outlet. Wood, peat, and coal were used for fuel. 
The temperature into the drier was 150" to 170° C., 
and leaving the dryer, 20°. Wheat, the principal 
crop dried, was reduced to a moisture content of 
about 13 percent. 

Typical uses of electricity on the farm were for 
cleaners, elevators, milking machines, conveyors, 
and lighting, and for small motors for miscellane- 
ous jobs. Electricity in the home was mainly for 
lighting purposes. 

Prices of electrical equipment were as follows: 


Vacuum cleaner (average) 400 

Vacuum cleaner (tank type) 650 

Washing machine and motor 

(no wringer) 2,250 

Light bulb, 75 w 3.3 

Table radio 245 to 1,500 

Record player-small table model 245 

17-inch TV 2,500 

Alarm clock 55 

Electric razor (Norelco type) 225 

Refrigerator (small apartment size) .... 750 

Refrigerator (similar to 8-10 cu. ft.). . . . 2,000 


Figure 16. — Experimental tractor powered by an 
electric motor. (The Institute for Mechanization 
and Electrification of Agriculture, Moscow.) 

Figure 18.— A cylindrical, vertical double -wall re- 
frigerated bulk tank and trailer; capacity, 1,000 
pounds; 1.7 kw. electric motor on compressor. 
( BN -8910) 

Figure 19.— Trailers for hauling bulk milk from 

Figure 17. — Tunnel dryer for small seeds on dis- surrounding farms. (Moscow Milk Combine.) 

play at the Agricultural and Industrial Exhibit in 
'Moscow. (BN-8909) 


Farm mechanization in the U.S.S.R. began in 
1929 when state farms were established. At the 
same time, institutes for mechanization research 
were started. The original tractor and implement 
factories used many American machines as proto- 
types; however, the present Soviet designers are 
developing their own versions of machines suitable 
for their conditions. 

Although many factories were destroyed during 
World War II, many new factories have been built 
and old ones have been rebuilt. Designs for "new 
machines are supplied by the various Institutes 
for Design and Testing (principal ones in Moscow) 
and by the Central Construction Bureau in Za- 

Machines are produced in subassembly and as- 
sembly lines, very similar to those in the U.S.A., 
but with less output per worker. The workers do 
more handwork and there are many more women 

than in a factory in the U.S.A. At one typical trac- 
tor plant the employees work 7-1/2 hours on week- 
days and 6 hours on Saturday, a total of 43-1/2 
hours. We were told that, beginning next year, they 
will work 7 hours on weekdays plus 6 hours on 
Saturday, a total of 41 hours. Nurseries are pro- 
vided for the children of working mothers. Seventy- 
six days of maternity leave is provided. 

Production incentives are highly regarded as a 
way of increasing production per worker. Factory 
and government representatives establish pro- 
duction goals for each plant. These goals seem to 
be characteristically set lower than the expected, 
since actual production is usually 120 to 130 per- 
cent of the goal. For example, at one plant, work- 
ers that meet their goal get 20 percent above the 
base pay, plus 2 percent increase in pay for each 
1 percent above the goal. The monthly base pay 
rates at this plant were: 




Factory workers 930 

Engineers 1,300-1,500 

Department head 2,200 

Director 3,000 

The Soviet Union has a patent system for citi- 
zens. Premiums up to 200,000 rubles are paid to 
designers for developing successful machinery. 
However, premiums are paid if and when the ma- 
chine gains acceptance, not when the patent is se- 
cured. The amount of the premium depends on an 
estimate of the annual saving to the Government 
by reducing the cost of production. 

Permission must be obtained from GOSPLAN, 
for a tractor or machinery manufacturing plant to 
extend its facilities. One tractor factory we visited 
indicated an investment of 1 ruble for each 1.6 

rubles of production. In general, about 60 percent 
of the expenses are for materials, 15 percent for 
wages, and 25 percent for overhead. 

Tractor Production 

Three nonfarm crawler tractors are now in 
production— about 75 to 100 daily of the C-100 at 
Chelyabinsk in the Ural Mountains, approximately 
20 daily of the TDT logging tractor in Minsk, and 
an undetermined number of the TDT logging trac- 
tor in Petrozavodsk about 125 miles northeast of 

Six basic models of farm tractors are currently 
in production. All have diesel engines. Estimated 
daily production is 545, of which 52 percent are 
crawlers and 48 percent are wheel tractors. Pro- 
duction of the different models at the various loca- 
tions is shown in table 2. 

Table 2. — Estimated daily production of agricultural tractors in Russia 

Location of factory, and 
kind of tractor 









MT3-5M 10 speeds-45 HP 
MT3-5K (Torque Ampli) 45 HP 
MT3-7 (1959 - 45 HP) 4WD 



Logging Crawler, TDT40 








DT54 (1958) 

DT56 (1959) 

Wheel-Single Cylinder, DT20 . . . 
Self Propelled Chassis 

Altai (Rubtsobsk): 




Crawler, DT54 




DT54 (1958) 

DT57 (1959) 




High Clearance, KD40 




DT24 (1958) 

DT28 (1959 Model) 





1 These totals do not include the Model TDT60 logging tractors built at Petrozavodsk, the C-80 and C-100 
industrial tractors built at Chelyabinsk, or the logging tractors built at Kharkov. 


Tractor Design 

In general, Russian agricultural tractors are 
heavier, for a given horsepower, than tractors 
manufactured in the U.S.A. Although reasons for 
this were not discussed at great length, several 
may apply. In the first place, the engineers do not 
wish to take any chances of a machine failing, as 
this is looked on with much disfavor in official 
circles. Second, because of the very large size of 
the collective and state farms and because the 
machines are likely to be run on a 2 -shift basis 
during busy seasons, the machines are likely to be 
operated a greater number of hours per year. 
Third, at the time the tractors were designed, the 
materials may not have been equal to those avail- 
able today. 

As mentioned previously, slightly more than 
one-half the present farm tractors are the crawler 
type as contrasted to only about 4 percent in the 
U.S.A. However, owing to increased emphasis on 
row crops, production of wheel tractors is to be 
greatly increased so that by 1965 wheel tractors 
will make up 70 percent of the total. 

Much work has been done on developing air- 
cooled diesel engines for tractors. The Kharkov 
Tractor Factory has developed a 2-cylinder 20-hp. 
air-cooled engine, which is being placed into a 
pre-production pilot run of tractors at the Kharkov 
Tractor Assembly Plant. A 4-cylinder air-cooled 
diesel was on exhibit at the Agricultural Exhibition 
in Moscow, and we were told that a special plant 
was planned to manufacture air-cooled engines for 
all requirements. 

One very interesting experimental development 
at the Kharkov factory was a process for rolling 
spur gears. The blanks were induction heated 
around the circumference after which the gear 
teeth could be formed by a few turns of the master 
pattern. Increased life and beam strength were 
claimed over cut gears. 

The development of machines and techniques for 
increasing the operational speed of implements 
was receiving much attention of designers and the 
research institutes. The goal of the designers is 
to at least double present speeds. 

Tracks for the present Russian agricultural 
crawler tractors are fabricated completely from 
unmachined castings. The track links are cast of 
austenitic steel with atleast 13 percent manganese. 
It is not possible to machine the links, and they 
are assembled just as cleaned in the foundry. 
Carburized, hardened pins are driven into place, 
and the track is complete and ready to go. Although 
the tracks do not wear as long as more precisely 
made ones, the simplicity and low cost were said 
to more than offset the difference. One Repair 
Technical Station indicated that it supplied a com- 
plete set of tracks with pins weighing 1,400 pounds 
per pair, for 900 rubles delivered ($90 at tourist 

exchange rates). In comparison, a pair of 11-38/6 
ply rubber tires and tubes cost 1,300 rubles. 

A Combine Plant 

The "Rostelmash" plant, in Rostov-on-Don, was 
completed in 1931. Various machines, including 
combines, plows, seeders, cultivators, mowers, 
windrowers, and corn pickers, were manufactured 
during the periods 1931-41 and 1944-56. (The 
plant did not operate during the war.) 

In 1957, production was shifted to the SK-3 self- 
propelled combine only. Approximately 40,000 
units were said to have been produced in the 12 
months preceding our visit. Engines for the com- 
bine are made by the Hammer and Sickle plant in 
Kharkov. This plant cooperates with teaching and 
research institutes, other manufacturing bureaus, 
and machine test stations. 

The Rostelmash plant is working toward the de- 
velopment of several different machines that will 
mount on a 60-horsepower self-propelled chassis. 
Displayed models of the proposed machines in- 
cluded a combine, double windrower, baler, wagon, 
manure spreader, and ensilage cutter. 

A "professional" conference is held periodically 
to discuss machine design and development prob- 
lems. In 1958, this conference lasted 8 days. Ap- 
parently it is similar to meetings of our profes- 
sional groups. 

The design and specifications for a new machine 
are submitted to the scientific council for approval, 
although it is possible to do a limited amount of 
experimental work without direct approval of the 
council. The SK-3 combine was cited as an exam- 
ple. The idea of developing a self-propelled com- 
bine was contrary to the thinking of the council 
and 2 years' work was done on it before approval 
was given for research and development. Then the 
council gave the design and development job to two 
bureaus and selected the best of the two designs. 

Figure 20. --Exhibit of one of each model tractor 
manufactured at the Minsk Tractor Plant. (BN- 



Figure 21. --Sign at Minsk Tractor Plant; "1% in- 
crease in efficiency means hundreds of Belaruss 
tractors over the quota." (BN-8912) 

Figure 22. — A 4-wheel drive tractor at the Minsk 
Tractor Plant. (BN-8913) 

Figure 24. — The Bogey wheel and track tension 
arrangement on the most common diesel crawler, 
the DT - 54. (BN-8915) 

Figure 25. — Small self-propelled chassis on ex- 
hibit at the Agricultural Exhibition, Kiev. The 
seeding device is one of a number of machines de- 
signed for this unit. (BN-8916) 

Figure 26.— The "Maltsev" plowat the Ag ricultural 
and Industrial Exhibition, Moscow. Most of the 
moldboards have been cut away. The plow is used 
about once in 4 years to loosen the soil without in- 
version. (BN-8917) 

Figure 23. — Newer tractors are equipped with 
mounted hitches. (BN-8914) 


Figure 27 . —Hydraulic dump trailer at the Agricul- 
tural Exhibition, Kiev. The trailer will dump to 
either side or to the rear. (BN-8918) 


Farm building construction in Russia compares 
to that in the U.S.A. from about 1910 to the 1920's. 
Practically all buildings for housing livestock are 
made of lumber. One-story buildings predomi- 
nate; feed materials are stored on the ground. 
Uses of electricity are being developed for han- 
dling materials around the farmstead, but little is 
being done to use electricity around the farm home 
for more than lighting. The Agricultural Engi- 
neering Research and Teaching Institutes are now 
beginning to incorporate farm structures as one of 
their activities. Most of the emphasis to date has 
been on developing equipment for handling mate- 
rials rather than on design of the structure. 


The average area available for housing in the 
U.S.S.R. is 7.7 square meters (81 square feet) per 
person. On many collective and state farms, 
houses are being constructed for individual fami- 
lies. For a while, large dormitory-style buildings 
that housed several families were built, but this 
does not appear to be the trend today. 

A family may secure a loan on a 10-year basis 
and build a house on land on a collective farm. The 
impression was given that this loan is not always 
available but depends on the financial situation of 
the collective farm. Families on the collective 
farm will often work together to help a family erect 
a house. A fee, which represents rent of the land 
or taxes, is paid to the government. Homes are 
constructed of wood, logs, concrete block, brick, 
or rammed earth. Floors are usually made of 
wood and covered with a throw-rug. Electricity is 
now available in many homes but is used princi- 
pally for lighting and not for appliances. 

Fuel for cooking and heating consists of wood, 
coal, dried peat, or dried-manure bricks. Manure 
is cut in bricks, stacked out-of-doors in the sun, 
and permitted to dry. These bricks are then used 
for fuel. It costs 150 to 200 rubles a year to heat 
a home. A dug-well forms the water supply on 
most of the farms; several families use the same 
dug-well. For livestock enterprises, the water is 
pumped to a tower from which it can be used for 
watering the animals or for dairy cleaning opera- 

Recently, research in farm structures has be- 
come an important part of the program in the In- 
stitutes of Agricultural Engineering. The objective 
is to reduce the labor requirements around the 
farmstead which includes developing equipment for 
handling feed and products and improving the de- 
sign of structures to facilitate the use of handling 
equipment. A good magazine entitled Farm Con- 
struction is now published in Russian by the Min- 
istry of Agriculture of the U.S.S.R., Moscow. More 
emphasis has been placed on improving operations 
for the farmstead than for the home. 

An apartment in town included two rooms plus 
kitchen and bath, for which the rent was 58 rubles 
per month plus 3 rubles for guests plus 6 to 7 
rubles per month for electricity. New apartment 
houses were heated from a central plant by hot 
water. Some of the older apartment houses had a 
common tap outside the house for the water supply. 
In all the towns we visited, there was tremendous 
activity in building apartment houses. Much of the 
construction work was being done by women, and 
the principal type of construction was concrete 
blocks or precast concrete covered with stucco. 
The quality of workmanship appeared to be lower 
than average. 


Figure 28.— A typical thatch-covered house in the 
Ukraine. (BN-8919) 

Figure 29.— A log house near Barnaul in Siberia. 
Frequently the logs were marked- with numbers 
indicating prefabrication. 

Dairy Structures 

Practically all buildings are a 1 -story type of 
construction made of wood. Some dairy stables 
are equipped with watering cups, manure carrier 
track, milking machines, and feed carts. The stall 
and manger layout is very similar to that in the 
U.S.A., except that the stanchions and mangers 
are made of wood and the platform on which the 
animal stands is usually made of wood. 

It is the practice in most areas, even in Central 
Siberia, to move the dairy cows to a different barn 
for summer milking and feeding. This is a pole- 
type structure; usually it has a gable roof, is 
rather simply constructed, and has a field power 
station for furnishing electricity for milking ‘ma- 
chines and light. 

The forage is normally stored on the ground in 
a separate structure adjacent or close to the dairy 
barn. A manure storage shed was constructed as 
part of each permanent dairy barn. Although we 
saw no milking parlors in operation we were told 
that there are 1,000 in the U.S.S.R. One milkmaid 
handles 40 cows in a milking parlor. It is the 

Figure 30. — A new farm home near Barnaul. 

Figure 31.— Grain drying and storage shed, Rodina 
Collective Farm, near Barnaul. Three tiltable 
panels made up the south roof slope of the shed 

practice to bring a considerable amount of straw 
from the field to the buildings after combining. 
This straw is normally placed in nicely formed 
stacks near the buildings. Research work was 
being done on transporting straw from the field to 
the barn on large wagons, from which the straw 
was then arranged to form a stack. 


Most of the silos are the belowground type and 
are made in round, square, or rectangular cross 
sections approximately 5 meters deep and 5 meters 
across. The length varies with the size. On a re- 
search basis, the large straw piles were being 
used as the sides of aboveground horizontal silos 
and the chopped silage was covered with straw. 
The researchers claimed a loss of only 6.5 per- 
cent in these silos.- In an experimental setup, the 
silage from the storage unit was first torn loose 
by the operator and then moved by an oscillating 
conveyor to the barn and placed in front of the 
dairy cows mechanically. We did not see any ver- 
tical silos in the U.S.S.R. 


Figure 32.— Most of the silage in the U.S.S.R. is 
stored in trench silos. Unloading is often accom- 
plished with dump trucks or winches. (BN-8920) 

Figure 33.— Milk cows are often quartered in sum- 
mer barns similar to the one shown. In winter 
they are kept in enclosed shelters. 

Figure 34. — Milkmaids on the Telman Collective 
Farm, near Minsk. Electric milking machines 
were used by these women to milk about 200 
cows, three times each day. (BN-8921) 

Figure 35. — Two windrowers pulled by one crawler 
tractor. Windrowing wheat near Barnaul inSiberia. 
( BN -8923) 

Figure 36.— A straw "sled" pulled behind a com- 
bine to simplify later gathering of the straw for 
use in livestock production. Note the large 
"buncher" mounted on the combine; about four 
bunches fall onto the sled, after which they are 
later collected and placed in a stack at the edge of 
the field or at the barn. (BN-8922) 

Figure 37.— Two large trail-type combines pulled 
behind one 80 horsepower crawler tractor near 
Barnaul inSiberia. It is planned that self -propelled 
combines will gradually replace these trail -type 



Lumbering is a large industry in the Central 
Siberian area around Barnaul. Logs are sent to 
the sawmill by train and by river. A start has 
been made in prefabrication of buildings in which 
the log structures are cut out at a central point, 
numbered with (red) paint, then shipped to the site 
where another crew erects the building. 

From the road we often saw herds of cattle, 
sheep, and horses, grazing in the fields. No fences 
are used in the farmland. A few barnyard areas 

are fenced. Conventional chicken wire was used 
for poultry and wooden fences for larger livestock. 
We did not see any woven wire fence. 

Galvanized steel, thatch, and tile were the major 
roof coverings for houses and other farm struc- 

Many women work as engineers, foremen, and 
miscellaneous workers in building construction. 
Large cranes were very numerous in the cities and 
used to lift materials from the ground to the level 
at which construction was taking place. Rural roads 
were dirt construction and very slippery when wet. 


The manufacture and distribution of farm ma- 
chinery in the U.S.S.R. is controlled by GOSPLAN, 
the overall state planning commission. GOSPLAN 
is divided into about 25 sections; one section is 
concerned with automobiles, tractors, and farm 
equipment. Although many older machines show 
evidence of being patterned after U.S. models, new 
machines are largely of Soviet design. The ma- 
chinery manufactured in the U.S.S.R. is on display 
in the impressive All-Union Agricultural and In- 
dustrial Exhibition in Moscow. 

Machine Tractor Stations, the first of which was 
established in 1928, formerly owned and managed 
the equipment used on collective farms. However, 
state farms owned and operated their own ma- 
chinery. The divided responsibility between the 
machine tractor stations and the collective farms 
apparently resulted in general inefficiency and, in 
1958, ownership of the machines was taken over 
by the collective farms. At this time Repair Tech- 
nical Stations (RTS) were set up for central con- 
trol of major repairs and other services. 

Machine Test Stations, not to be confused with 
Machine Tractor Stations, have been organized to 
evaluate prototype machines developed by the var- 
ious research and machine building institutes and 
bureaus. Twenty-three test stations were operat- 
ing at the time of our visit. 

Farm machines are produced in subassembly 
and assembly lines, similar to those in the U.S. A., 
but with less output per worker. The work week in 

the factories, at the time of our visit, was 43-1/2 
hours. Production incentives are highly regarded 
as a way of increasing production per worker. 
Goals are established for each plant and awards 
made to those who meet and exceed the quota. 
Premiums are also paid to designers for develop- 
ing machines that gain acceptance. 

Farm building development in the U.S.S.R. has 
lagged behind farm machinery development. Elec- 
tricity is used for many tasks around the farm- 
stead, such as grain cleaning and operation of 
milking machines. It is also available in many of 
the homes but is used principally for lighting and 
not for appliances. 

As in the U.S. A., institutions for educating the 
Soviet "agricultural engineer" carry on programs 
of research as well as teaching. In addition, other 
research institutes and construction bureaus are 
charged specifically with the development of new 
machines. The institutes appeared to be staffed by 
competent engineers who were well supplied with 
research tools and instruments. 

The U.S.S.R. has seven institutes for the mech- 
anization and electrification of agriculture where 
agricultural engineers are trained. The typical 
engineering diploma graduate (approximately equal 
to a B.S. degree in the U.S. A.) will have completed 
10 years in grade and high school plus 5 years of 
institute study or he will have completed 7 years 
of grade school plus 4 years of technical high 
school plus 5 years of institute study. Graduate 
work is offered in some institutes. 



Farm Equipment Statistics, U.S.S.R. 

Kind of equipment 

Production, 1957 

Approximate total on farms, 
end of 1958 




1 204,000 

2 1, 000, 000 




Grain combines . 



Corn pickers and forage harvesters .... 



Sugar beet harvesters 






Cotton pickers 












Planting drills 






^Operating at capacity. For purposes of comparison, the U.S.A. manufactured 275,000 tractors in 1957. 
^52 percent crawlers. The U.S.A. had 4,500,000 tractors on farms at the end of 1958. 

Technical Description of Some Tractors Manufactured in the U.S.S.R. 
Tractor S-100 and S-100 B 

Type of tractor 

Type of engine 

Nominal horsepower of engine . . . 

Specific fuel consumption 

Class of tractor 

Maximum drawbar pull in low gear 


Modified model 

Weight of tractor S-100 

Weight of tractor S-100 B 

Specific pressure on ground: 


S-100 B 

Additional equipment 

Tracklaying, for heavy agricultural work 
Diesel, four-stroke 
100 h.p. 

200 g/effective h.p./h. 


9,000 kg. 

2.3 to 10.1 km/h 
S-100 B (marsh) 

11,400 kg. 

13,200 kg. 

0.5 kg/cm 2 
0.24 kg/cnri 

Separate-unit hydraulic control system with coupling de- 
vice, power take-off shaft for land utility work. 

Tractor DT-54 M 

Type of tractor 

Type of engine . . . . 

Nominal horsepower of engine . . . . 

Specific fuel consumption 

Class of tractor 

Maximum drawbar pull in low gear . 


Modified models 

Weight of tractor 

Specific pressure on ground 

Additional equipment 

Diesel, four-stroke 
75 h.p. 

190-195 g/effective h.p./h. 


3,950 kg. 

0.82 to 10.4 km/h 
DT-55 (marsh) 

DT-57 (steep-slope) 

5,400 kg. 2 
0.4 kg/cm 

Separate-unit hydraulic control system with coupling de- 
vice, power take-off shaft, reduction gear. 



Tractor MTZ-5M 

Type of tractor 

Type of engine 

Nominal horsepower of engine . . . 

Specific fuel consumption 

Class of tractor 

Maximum drawbar pull in low gear 


Engine starting system 

Modified model 

Weight of tractor 

Additional equipment 

Tractor T-38 

Type of tractor 

Type of engine 

Nominal horsepower of engine . . . . 

Specific fuel consumption 

Class of tractor 

Maximum drawbar pull in first gear 


Modified model 

Weight of tractor 

Specific pressures on ground 

Additional equipment 

Universal, wheeled, pneumatic tires 
Diesel, four-stroke 
40 h.p. 

210 g/e.h.p./h. 


1,400 kg. 

0.78 to 13.8 km/h 
Electric starter 
MTZ-7 with four-wheel drive 
2,870 kg. 

Separate-unit hydraulic control system with coupling de- 
vice, power take-off shaft, driving pulley, reduction gear. 

Tracklaying, row-crop 
Diesel, four-stroke 
40 h.p. 

210 g/e.h.p./h. 


2.000 kg. 

3.8 to 9.05 km/h 

KD-35 for work in orchards and vineyards 

4.000 kg. 

0.6 kg/cin 

Separate-unit hydraulic control system with coupling de- 
vice, power take-off shaft, pulley equipment, reduction 

Tractor DT-20 

Type of tractor 

Type of engine 

Nominal horsepower of engine . . . 

Specific fuel consumption 

Class of tractor 

Maximum drawbar pull in low gear 


Weight of tractor 

Additional equipment 

Orchard-garden, reversible, wheeled with pneumatic tires 
Diesel, four-stroke 
18 h.p. 

200 g/e.h.p./h. 


720 kg. 

0.87 to 17.6 km/h 
1,460 kg. 

Separate-unit hydraulic control system, coupling device, 
driving pulley, power take-off shaft. 

Immediate Farm Mechanization Goals 

(1) To increase speed. Attempting to increase 
by at least 1.5 to2.0 times for plowing, cultivating, 
and all major operations. For example, apparently 
they plow about 3 to 3.5 miles per hour and are 
attempting to develop equipment to plow 4.5 to 6 
miles per hour. 

(2) To electrify all farms within the next 6 or 7 
years. We were told that at present all state farms 
are 100-percent electrified and that collective 
farms are 40-percent electrified. All machine and 
tractor stations are 100-percent electrified. 

(3) To catch up with the U.S.A. in production of 
meat, milk, eggs, and other animal food products. 
We were told this over and over. 

(4) To intensify the mechanization of farm- 
steads. Although we are ahead of the Russians in 
this respect, this is also one of the greatest prob- 
lems in U.S. Agriculture. 

Some Farm Equipment Developments of Interest 

(1) Three-row corn pickers are in production 
and use, and we saw pictures of an experimental 
six-row corn picker. Unfortunately, we did not get 
to the corn picker production plant, but we saw 
several pieces of corn harvesting equipment. We 
saw under test 60 kinds of husking and snapping 
rolls, including snapping rolls operating at right 
angles to gathering chains. 


(2) Six-row machine to cultivate, apply granular 
fertilizer, and apply herbicides, all in one opera- 

(3) Forage harvester that pinches off the ears, 
then separates ears from stalks. Ears and chopped 
stalks are delivered in separate elevators from 
forage harvester to attendant trucks. Self- 
sharpening knives have been developed. 

(4) The Russians go in for bigness. Examples: 

(A) 21-foot side-delivery rake 

(B) 48 -foot dump rake 

(C) 7 mowers on one tractor, each 7 feet 
long, and each mower operated with an 
electric motor powered from the tractor. 

(5) Self-propelled pick-up baler. We saw being 
developed a two-chambered self-propelled pick-up 
baler. Objective is to bale hay from 110 acres 
per day. 

(6) Well advanced in hydraulics and high- 
frequency electrode for metal coating. One of the 
delegation says the Russians have the best book 
known on hydraulics ("Oil Hydraulics” by Chaimo- 
vitsch of the Kiev Machine Construction Bureau). 
It has been published in German and one farm 
equipment firm in the United States has translated 
it into English. 

(7) Experimental power take-off spreader. Has 
a hydraulic motor in front and behind. The movable 
bed is reversible so it can be used for either load- 
ing or unloading. Its approximate dimensions were 
2 ft. deep, 6 ft. wide, 10 ft. long. Mounted on two 
large wheels. 

(8) Large sledlike straw collector behind com- 
bine; and very large push-off stacker and push-off 
wagon platform for long hay. 

(9) All tractors are Diesel and predominantly 
crawlers, but the movement is now toward wheel 
tractors. (American farm tractors are predomi- 
nantly wheel type.) Some small tractors are 

air-cooled Diesels, and plans are to use air-cooled 
Diesels extensively. 

(10) The U.S.S.R. has the uni-tractor concept in 
two types, small and large: 

(A) The small version is a frame on which 
more than 20 attachments are used. The 
motor has been 1-cylinder, 14 h.p., air- 
cooled Diesel, but production is starting 
on 2-cylinder, 20 h.p., air-cooled Diesel. 

(B) All-purpose chassis, 60 h.p., power 
steering. Attachments include: Com- 
bine (hydraulic controls), hydraulic dump 
wagon, forage harvester, corn and cotton 
picker, castor bean harvester, manure 
spreader, cultivator, swather baler, etc. 

Conference with U. A. Frantsesson 

Frantsesson, working on structure of soils in 
the new land, found that soil structure size greater 
than 1/4 mm. was important. He stated that large 
aggregates were destroyed rapidly by tillage, but 
that the soil remained productive with the smaller 
aggregates. He divided aggregates into two groups: 

(1) Water stable, those formed under grasses, and 

(2) conditionally stable, those formed by tillage. 
He explained that development of the new lands 
area was started in 1954, and 35 million hectares 
of new land had been brought into cultivation by 
1957. A small amount of new land is still being 
brought into production, but the rapid expansion is 
over. New lands are still being developed in the 
humid sections by drainage. He stated that in the 
dry area they plan to use sod for 4 or 5 years and 
then a crop such as wheat, flax, or sugar beets for 
2 or 3 years; in the humid area 1 or 2 years in 
sod, then a crop 1 or 2 years. Wheat residue is 
left on the surface in experiments only.